Standard Compliance

Embold detects violations of standards such as MISRA. To understand the percentage coverage on each standard, please read the respective sections below.

Yes No



MISRA, The Motor Industry Software Reliability Association is a set of standards, that provides software development guidelines. Embold detects MISRA rule violations. As of now, Embold supports 94.40% (i.e. 135 out of 143) MISRA C:2012 rules and we are adding more.

Enabling and disabling MISRA checks in Embold

MISRA is one of the code issue type. For more details, refer to the Code Checker Configuration document. This article will be useful for enabling or disabling MISRA related code issues.

MISRA C: 2012 Compliance Matrix

 MISRA RulesMandatoryRequiredAdvisory DecidableUndecidable
Percent Coverage94.40%90%96.00%90.90%95.68%88.80%

Supported MISRA rules

MISRA guidelines ensure that your code is safe and secure. Each rule has its own key and description. All the supported rules have KPI: Robustness. Following MISRA rules are supported by the latest version of Embold.

MISRAC-2012 IDEmbold Rule KeyDescription
Rule 1.1MISRA-C2012-1.1The program shall contain no violations of the standard C syntax and constraints, and shall not exceed the implementation’s translation limits.
Rule 1.2 Gnu-empty-initializer, c++-compatLanguage extensions should not be used
Rule 1.3 MISRA-C2012-1.3 There shall be no occurrence of undefined or critical unspecified behaviour
Rule 2.1 MISRA-C2012-2.1 A project shall not contain unreachable code
Rule 2.2 MISRA-C2012-2.2 There shall be no dead code
Rule 2.3Unused-local-typedefA project should not contain unused type declarations
Rule 2.4 MISRA-C2012-2.4 A project should not contain unused tag declarations
Rule 2.5Unused-macros A project should not contain unused macro declarations
Rule 2.6 MISRA-C2012-2.6 A function should not contain unused label declarations
Rule 2.7 MISRA-C2012-2.7 There should be no unused parameters in functions
Rule 3.1 MISRA-C2012-3.1 The character sequences /* an // shall not be used within a comment
Rule 3.2MISRA-C2012-3.2If the source line containing a // comment ends with a \ character in the source character set, the next line becomes part of the comment. This may result in unintentional removal of code.
Rule 4.1 MISRA-C2012-4.1 Octal and hexadecimal escape sequences shall be terminated
Rule 4.2MISRA-C2012-4.2Trigraphs should not be used
Rule 5.1 MISRA-C2012-5.1 External identifiers shall be distinct
Rule 5.2MISRA-C2012-5.2Identifiers declared in the same scope and name space shall be distinct
Rule 5.3MISRA-C2012-5.3An identifier declared in an inner scope shall not hide an identifier declared in an outer scope
Rule 5.4 MISRA-C2012-5.4 Macro identifiers shall be distinct
Rule 5.5 MISRA-C2012-5.5Identifiers shall be distinct from macro names
Rule 5.6MISRA-C2012-5.6A typedef name shall be a unique identifier
Rule 5.7 MISRA-C2012-5.7A tag name shall be a unique identifier
Rule 5.8shadow Identifiers that define objects or functions with external linkage shall be unique
Rule 5.9 MISRA-C2012-5.9, shadowIdentifiers that define objects or functions with internal linkage should be unique
Rule 6.1MISRA_C2012-6.1Bit-fields shall only be declared with an appropriate type
Rule 6.2MISRA-C2012-6.2Single-bit named bit fields shall not be of a signed type
Rule 7.1 MISRA-C2012-7.1Octal constants shall not be used
Rule 7.2MISRA_C2012-7.2 A “u” or “U” suffix shall be applied to all integer constants that are represented in an unsigned type
Rule 7.3 MISRA-C2012-7.3 The lowercase character “l” shall not be used in a literal suffix
Rule 7.4MISRA-C2012-7.4A string literal shall not be assigned to an object unless the object's type is pointer to const-qualified char
Rule 8.1MISRA-C2012-8.1Types shall be explicitly specified
Rule 8.2MISRA-C2012-8.2, strict-prototypesFunction types shall be in prototype form with named parameters
Rule 8.3 MISRA-C2012-8.3 All declarations of an object or function shall use the same names and type qualifiers
Rule 8.4MISRA-C2012-8.4A compatible declaration shall be visible when an object or function with external linkage is defined
Rule 8.5MISRA-C2012-8.5An external object or function shall be declared once in one and only one file
Rule 8.6MISRA-C2012-5.9 An identifier with external linkage shall have exactly one external definition
Rule 8.7MISRA-C2012-8.7Functions and objects should not be defined with external linkage if they are referenced in only one translation unit
Rule 8.8MISRA-C2012-8.8The static storage class specifier shall be used in all declarations of objects and functions that have internal linkage
Rule 8.9MISRA-C2012-8.9An object should be defined at block scope if its identifier only appears in a single function
Rule 8.10MISRA-C2012-8.10An inline function shall be declared with the static storage class
Rule 8.11 MISRA-C2012-8.11 When an array with external linkage is declared, its size should be explicitly specified
Rule 8.12 MISRA-C2012-8.12, duplicate-enum Within an enumerator list, the value of an implicitly-specified enumeration constant shall be unique
Rule 8.13Readability-non-const-parameter A pointer should point to a const-qualified type whenever possible
Rule 8.14 MiSRA-C2012-8.14 The restrict type qualifi er shall not be used
Rule 9.1 MISRA-C2012-9.1,uninitialized,sometimes-uninitialized The value of an object with automatic storage duration shall not be read before it has been set
Rule 9.2Missing-bracesThe initializer for an aggregate or union shall be enclosed in braces
Rule 9.3MISRA-C2012-9.3Arrays shall not be partially initialized
Rule 9.4MISRA-C2012-9.4An element of an object shall not be in itialized more than once
Rule 9.5 MISRA-C2012-9.5 Where designated initializers are used t o initialize an array object the size of the array shall be specified explicitly
Rule 10.1 Sign-conversion,float-conversion, hicpp-signed-bitwise,char-subscriptsOperands shall not be of an inappropriate essential type
Rule 10.2 Misra-c2012-10.4,bugprone-narrowing-conversions Expressions of essentially character type shall not be used inappropriately in addition and subtraction operations
Rule 10.3 Misra-c2012-10.6,float-conversion,implicit-float-conversion,constant-conversion,assign-enum,implicit-int-conversion,sign-conversion,enum-conversion The value of an expression shall not be assigned to an object with a narrower essential type or of a different essential type category
Rule 10.4 MISRA-C2012-10.4,hicpp-signed-bitwise,bugprone-narrowing-conversions,sign-conversion,sign-compare Both operands of an operator in which the usual arithmetic conversions are performed s hall have the same essential type category
Rule 10.5 MISRA_C2012-10.5The value of an expression should not be cast to an inappropriate essential type
Rule 10.6 MISRA-C2012-10.6,sign-conversion,double-promotion The value of a composite expression shall not be assigned to an object with wider essential type
Rule 10.7 Double-promotion,sign-conversion If a composite expression is used as one operand of an operator in which the usual arithmetic conversions are performed then the other operand shall not have wider essential type
Rule 10.8 MISRA-C2012-10.8,cast-qual The value of a composite expression shall not be cast to a different essential type category or a wider essential type
Rule 11.1 MISRA-C2012-11.1 Conversions shall not be performed between a pointer to a function and any other type
Rule 11.2MISRA-C2012-11.2Conversions shall not be performed between a pointer to an incomplete type and any other type
Rule 11.3 MISRA-C2012-11.3 A cast shall not be performed between a pointer to object type and a pointer to a diff erent object type
Rule 11.4 MISRA-C2012-11.4 A conversion should not be performed between a pointer to object and an integer type
Rule 11.5 MISRA-C2012-11.5 A conversion should not be performed from pointer to void into pointer to object
Rule 11.6 MISRA-C2012-11.6 A cast shall not be performed between pointer to void and an arithmetic type
Rule 11.7 MISRA-C2012-11.7 A cast shall not be performed between pointer to object and a noninteger arithmetic type
Rule 11.8 MISRA-C2012-11.8 A cast shall not remove any const or volatile qualification from the type pointed to by a pointer
Rule 11.9 MISRA-C2012-11.9, non-literal-null-conversion The macro NULL shall be the only per mitted form of integer null pointer constant
Rule 12.1 MiSRA-C2012-12.1 The precedence of operators within expressions should be made explicit
Rule 12.2 MISRA-C2012-12.2, hicpp-signed-bitwise The right hand operand of a shift operator shall lie in the range zero to one less than the width in bits of the essential type of the left hand operand
Rule 12.3 MISRA-C2012-12.3, comma The comma operator should not be used
Rule 12.4 MISRA-C2012-12.4 Evaluation of constant expressions should not lead to unsigned integer wrap-around
Rule 13.1 MISRA-C2012-13.1 Initializer lists shall not contain persistent side eff ects
Rule 13.2 MISRA-C2012-13.2 The value of an expression and its persistent side eff ects shall be the same under all permitted evaluation orders
Rule 13.3 MISRA-C2012-13.3 A full expression containing an increment (++) or decrement (--) operator should hav e no other potential side eff ects other than that caused by the increment or decrement operator
Rule 13.4 MISRA-C2012-13.4 The result of an assignment operator should not be used
Rule 13.5 MISRA-C2012-13.5 The right hand operand of a logical && or || operator shall not contain persistent side effects
Rule 13.6 MISRA-C2012-13.6 The operand of the sizeof operator shall not contain any expression which has potential side effects
Rule 14.1 MISRA-C2012-14.1 A loop counter shall not have essentially fl oating type
Rule 14.2 MISRA-C2012-14.2,for-loop-analysis A for loop shall be well-formed
Rule 14.3Misra-c2012-14.4,knownConditionTrueFalse,misc-redundant-expressionControlling expressions shall not be invariant
Rule 14.4 Misra-c2012-14.4,knownConditionTrueFalse,misc-redundant-expression The controlling expression of an if statement and the controlling expression of an iteration- statement shall have essentially Boolean type
Rule 15.1 MISRA-C2012-15.1 The goto statement should not be used
Rule 15.2 MISRA-C2012-15.2 The goto statement shall jump to a label declared later in the same function
Rule 15.3 MISRA-C2012-15.3 Any label referenced by a goto statement shall be declared in the same block, or in any block enclosing the goto statement
Rule 15.4 duplicateBreak There should be no more than one break or goto statement used to terminate any iteration statement
Rule 15.5 MISRA-C2012-15.5 A function should have a single point of exit at the end
Rule 15.6 MISRA-C2012-15.6 The body of an iteration-statement or a selection-statement shall be a compound-statement
Rule 15.7 MISRA-C2012-15.7 All if … else if constructs shall be terminated with an else statement
Rule 16.1Unreachable-codeAll switch statements shall be well-formed
Rule 16.2 MISRA-C2012-16.2 A switch label shall only be used when the most closely-enclosing compound statement is the body of a switch statement
Rule 16.3 MISRA-C2012-16.3 An unconditional break statement shall terminate every switch-clause
Rule 16.4 MISRA-C2012-16.4 Every switch statement shall have a default label
Rule 16.5 MISRA-C2012-16.5 A default label shall appear as either the first or the last switch label of a switch statement
Rule 16.6 MISRA-C2012-16.6 Every switch statement shall have at least two switch-clauses
Rule 16.7 MISRA-C2012-16.7 A switch-expression shall not have essentially Boolean type
Rule 17.1 MISRA-C2012-17.1 The features of shall not be used
Rule 17.2MISRA-C2012-17.2Functions shall not call themselves, either directly or indirectly
Rule 17.3MISRA-C2012-17.3A function shall not be declared implicitly
Rule 17.4MISRA-C2012-17.4All exit paths from a function with non-void return type shall have an explicit return statement with an expression
Rule 17.5 MISRA-C2012-17.5, argumentSize The function argument corresponding to a parameter declared to have an array type shall have an appropriate number of elements
Rule 17.6 MISRA-C2012-17.6 The declaration of an array parameter shall not contain the static keyword between the [ ]
Rule 17.7MISRA-C2012-17.7The value returned by a function having non-void return type shall be used
Rule 17.8 MISRA-C2012-17.8 A function parameter should not be modifi ed
Rule 18.1 MISRA-C2012-18.1 A pointer resulting from arithmetic on a pointer operand shall address an element of the same array as that pointer operand
Rule 18.3compare-distinct-pointer-types The relational operators >, >=, < and <= shall not be applied to objects of pointer type except where they point into the same object
Rule 18.4MISRA-C2012-18.4The +, -, += and -= operators should not be applied to an expression of pointer type
Rule 18.5 MISRA-C2012-18.5 Declarations should contain no more than two levels of pointer nesting
Rule 18.6 MISRA-C2012-18.6,autoVariablesAssignGlobalPointer The address of an object with automatic storage shall not be copied to another object that persists after the first object has ceased to exist
Rule 18.7MISRA-C2012-18.7Flexible array members shall not be declared
Rule 18.8 MISRA-C2012-18.8 Variable-length array types shall not be used
Rule 19.2 MiSRA-C2012-19.2 The union keyword should not be used
Rule 20.1 MISRA-C2012-20.1 #include directives should only be preceded by preprocessor directives or comments
Rule 20.2 MISRA-C2012-20.2 The ', " or \ characters and the /* or // character sequences shall not occur in a header file name
Rule 20.3 MISRA-C2012-20.3,syntaxError,Pre-processing ErrorThe #include directive shall be followed by either a or "filename" sequence
Rule 20.4 MiSRA-C2012-20.4,reserved-id-macro,keyword-macroA macro shall not be defined with the same name as a keyword
Rule 20.5 MISRA-C2012-20.5 #undef should not be used
Rule 20.6 Embedded-directiveTokens that look like a preprocessing directive shall not occur within a macro argument
Rule 20.7MISRA-C2012-20.7Expressions resulting from the expansion of macro parameters shall be enclosed in parentheses
Rule 20.8 MISRA-C2012-20.8The controlling expression of a #if or #elif preprocessing directive shall evaluate to 0 or 1
Rule 20.9 undef All identifiers used in the controlling expression of #if or #elif preprocessing directives shall be #defi ne’d before evaluation
Rule 20.10 MISRA-C2012-21.10 The # and ## preprocessor operators should not be used
Rule 20.11 Misra-c2012-21.11 A macro parameter immediately following a # operator shall not immediately be followed by a ## operator
Rule 20.12 MISRA-C2012-21.12 A macro parameter used as an operand to the # or ## o perators, which is itself subj ect to further macro replacement, shall only be used as an operand to these operators
Rule 20.13 invalidFunctionArg A line whose first token is # shall be a valid preprocessing directive
Rule 20.14MISRA-C2012-20.14All #else, #elif and #endif preprocessor directives shall reside in the same file as the #if, #ifdef or #ifndef directive to which they are related
Rule 21.1 MISRA-C2012-21.1 #defi ne and #undef shall not be used on a reserved identifier or reserved macro name
Rule 21.2Readability-redundant-declaration,compiler error A reserved identifier or macro name shall not be declared
Rule 21.3 MISRA-C2012-21.3 The memory allocation and deallocation functions of shall not be used
Rule 21.4 MISRA-C2012-21.4 The standard header file shall not be used
Rule 21.5 MISRA-C2012-21.5 The standard header file shall not be used
Rule 21.6MISRA-C2012-21.6The Standard Library input/output functions shall not be used
Rule 21.7 MISRA-C2012-21.7 The atof, atoi, atol and atoll functions of shall not be used
Rule 21.8 MISRA-C2012-21.8 The library functions abort, exit, getenv and system of shall not be used
Rule 21.9 MISRA-C2012-21.9 The library functions bsearch and qsort of shall not be used
Rule 21.10MISRA-C2012-21.10The Standard Library time and date functions shall not be used
Rule 21.11 MISRA-C2012-21.11 The standard header file shall not be used
Rule 21.12MISRA-C2012-21.12The exception handling features of should not be used
Rule 22.1 MISRA-C2012-22.1,memleak,resourceLeak All resources obtained dynamically by means of Standard Library functions shall be explicitly released
Rule 22.2 MISRA-C2012-22.2 A block of memory shall only be freed if it was allocated by means of a Standard Library function
Rule 22.4 MISRA-C2012-22.4 There shall be no attempt to write to a stream which has been opened as read-only
Rule 22.5MISRA-C2012-22.5A pointer to a FILE object shall not be dereferenced
Rule 22.6 MISRA-C2012-22.6,useClosedFile, deallocuse,doubleFree The value of a pointer to a FILE shall not be used after the associated stream has been closed

The above table states that approximately 94.40% of rules (i.e. 135 rules out of 143) are supported by Embold.

MISRA Reports

Users can download MISRA compliance and MISRA reports. To know more about download reports, refer to this article.

Yes No


Supported OWASP rules

Embold supports OWASP top-10 related code issues.
Supported Language: Java
You can check the list of issues in the following table:

Level OWASP Top-10 code issues
A2Broken Authentication
A3Sensitive Data Exposure
A4XML External Entities
A5Broken Access Control
A6Security Misconfiguration
A7Cross-Site Scripting XSS
A8Insecure Deserialization
A10Insufficient Logging & Monitoring
Yes No


CWE (Common Weakness Enumeration) top-25 are the most common and impactful issues that allow developers, testers, users, project managers to find the severe and current security weak code checks.

Supported CWE rules

The below table will provide you with insight into currently supported CWE Java security checks.

CWE Supported Checks
Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')
Improper Input Validation
Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')
Exposure of Sensitive Information to an Unauthorized Actor
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection')
Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')
Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')
Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference
Use of Hard-coded Credentials
Deserialization of Untrusted Data
Uncontrolled Resource Consumption
Yes No
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